This information is presented for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro) as cited in each article and is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or health care provider. The author disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Life-threatening conditions should always be treated under a doctor’s care and self-treatment is not recommended. Consult your doctor or other qualified clinician about health problems, questions and concerns before using new supplements or changing your treatment plan.